Recurrent or persistent pain is a significant problem for many children with chronic illness. Unfortunately, there are no studies that systematically evaluate the role of the family in management of pain in pediatric patients with chronic illnesses. Some studies report that parents under-medicate children’s postoperative pain. Consequently, a pilot study was launched to examine the mechanisms behind parental under-medication of children’s pain such as fear of side effects, and potential addiction to pain medication. Parents reported the belief that the less often children received pain medication, the better it worked. Moreover, socio-demographic variables, such as parental education, and personality and temperament variables predicted parental perception of pain medication. In this study we strive to examine parental pain management of children with chronic illness. Parent subjects will complete measures of anxiety, child temperament, attitudes about medication administration, observations of pain/pain expression, child coping, child anxiety, depression and demographic information. Parents of children with developmental delays or special needs will also be asked to complete study measures. Children age 7 will complete a measure of trait and state anxiety only. All children ages 8-18 will complete a measure of state and trait anxiety, perceptions of uncertainty about their illness as well as pain and quality of life questionnaires. . 500 child/parent pairs are sought for this study between UCI/CHOC and JJCCC (N=1,000 total subjects). Only 100 child/parent pairs (N=200 total subjects) will be recruited from JJCCC.