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Bladder cancer occurs in the bladder – the organ, located in the pelvic area that stores urine. The most common bladder cancer forms on the inside bladder lining.
Most bone cancers are caused by advanced breast, prostate or lung cancers spreading to the bone. Primary bone cancer, which forms in bone cells, is rare and occurs more often in children.
A brain tumor forms when abnormal cells grow in the tissues of the brain.
Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cells grow on the lining of cervix located in the lower part of the uterus (womb) in the female reproductive system. Cervical cancer forms slowly over time showing little or no symptoms, but is easily detected from regular Pap tests and is usually most curable if found early.
Colorectal cancer occurs when abnormal cells grow in the lining of the colon or rectum located at the end of the digestive system. Colorectal cancer grows slowly over time and mostly begins as a polyp that is non-cancerous. An uncommon type of polyp, called adenoma, can become cancerous.
Esophageal cancer forms in the tissues of the lining of the esophagus, the tube connecting the throat to the stomach at the beginning of the digestive system.
Cancer that occurs in the female reproductive system is known as gynecologic cancer. Annually there are about 90,000 women diagnosed with gynecologic cancer in the U.S. alone. More than half of the gynecologic cancers diagnosed are cervical cancer according to estimates from the National Cancer Institute.
Most head and neck cancers form in the moist tissues (mucosal surface) lining the mouth, nose and throat. In the United States, approximately three to five percent of cancers are head and neck cancers. These cancers are more common in men and in people over age 50.
Kidney cancer forms in the kidney(s), the organs that remove waste from the blood and transport the wastes to the bladder.
Leukemia occurs when cancer forms in blood cells located in bone marrow, the center of the bone where blood cells are produced. Blood cells in the body die naturally and new cells are formed in the bone marrow to replenish lost cells.
Cancer that originates in the liver is known as liver cancer, hepatic cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (from the Greek hēpar, meaning liver).
Lung cancer begins when abnormal cells grow in one or both lungs. Abnormal cells can invade healthy lung tissue, form tumors and prevent the lung from functioning correctly, resulting in less oxygen circulating in the body.
A lung nodule, also called a pulmonary nodule, is one of the most common abnormalities seen on radiographic images, and is a small mass of tissue in the lung that is smaller than 3 cm (slightly more than an inch) in diameter. The nodule appears as a white shadow on a chest X-ray or computerized tomography (CT) scan.
Lymphedema is a condition in which a part of the body, most often the arms or legs, is severely swollen due to an accumulation of protein and fluid in the affected area. When lymph vessels are unable to properly return lymph fluid back into circulation swelling occurs.
Lymphoma is cancer that occurs in the cells of the lymphatic system (immune system), a network of lymph nodes and lymph vessels that carry lymph fluid, nutrients, and waste throughout tissues and the bloodstream. The spleen, bone marrow and thymus gland are also apart of the lymphatic system.
Ovarian cancer occurs when abnormal cells grow in one or both of the ovaries in the female reproductive system. Epithelial ovarian cancer which forms on the surface of the ovary, is the most common type. Another less common type is germ cell tumors which begin in egg cells.
Pancreatic cancer, also called exocrine cancer, forms in the tissue of the pancreas, an organ in the digestive system located in the abdomen. Endocrine cells in the pancreas create enzymes used to digest fats and proteins, and exocrine glands create insulin and hormones to help balance the amount of sugar in the blood.
Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate gland in the male reproductive system. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), more than 200,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in the United States this year. Sixty-five percent of all prostate cancers are found in men ages 65 – 69.
Skin cancer or melanoma forms in the melanocytes, cells found in the skin that produce melanin that tans the skin. Overexposure to the sun can cause melanocytes to cluster forming pink, tan, or brown moles. If moles begin to change shape, color or size they may be cancerous.
Stomach cancer, also called gastric cancer, forms in the tissues lining the stomach, an organ in the digestive system. Stomach cancer grows slowly over time and can spread to the lymph nodes and also reach the liver, lungs and bones. It is more common in countries outside of the United States.
Testicular cancer occurs in one or both testicles in the male reproductive system. There are many types of testicular cancer—germ cell tumors are the most common. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), more than 7,000 men will be diagnosed each year with testicular cancer in the United States.
Thyroid cancer occurs in the thyroid gland, an organ located in the throat near the Adam’s apple. This small gland produces hormones to regulate the metabolism, heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. At times, lumps or nodules may form in the thyroid.
Uterine cancer forms in the uterus (the womb) in the female reproductive system, and usually occurs after menopause. Uterine cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer for women after breast, lung and colon cancers.
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